"PLAGIARISM" can occur in two forms: 1) author(s) intentionally copy someone else’s work and claim it as their own, or 2) author(s) copy her or his own previously published material either in full or in part, without providing appropriate references - also called as "self-plagiarism" or "duplicate publication".

  • SAJMS follows the standard international definition and description of plagiarism and according to the guidelines provided by HEC (the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan).

    ( Policy.pdf)

  • SAJMS follows the principles for all aspects of publication ethics set by COPE (the Committee on Publication Ethics). It also subscribes to the guidelines for handling cases of research and publication misconduct.


  • SAJMS follows the authorship guidelines of ICMJE (the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors).


  • 1  -  Plagiarism before publication

    The editorial board of SAJMS will judge any case of plagiarism on its own merits. If plagiarism is detected, either by the editors, peer reviewers or editorial staff at any stage before publication of a manuscript - before or after acceptance, during editing or at page proof stage, we will alert the author(s), asking her or him to either rewrite the text or quote the text exactly and to cite the original source. If the plagiarism is extensive - that is, if at least 25% of the original submission is plagiarized - the article may be rejected. 2 - When is plagiarism check done? Every manuscript submitted for publication to SAJMS is checked for plagiarism after submission and before being sent to an editor for editorial review.

    3  -   How is plagiarism check done?

    SAJMS uses Turnitin (licensed by iParadigms) to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Turnitin is an Internet-based plagiarism-prevention service to screen published and submitted content for originality.

    4  -  Handling of submitted manuscripts for plagiarism

    The manuscripts in which plagiarism is detected are handled based on the extent of plagiarism present in the manuscript. The maximum limit acceptable for plagiarism checked by the Turnitin is 15%.

  • 10% plagiarism - The manuscript is assigned a manuscript ID and it is immediately sent for peer-review.
  • 20% plagiarism - The manuscript is assigned a manuscript ID and it is immediately sent back to the authors for content revision
  • 25% plagiarism - The manuscript is NOT assigned a manuscript ID and it is immediately sent back to the authors for content revision.
  • 25% plagiarism - The manuscript is rejected without editorial review. The authors are advised to revise the plagiarized parts of the manuscript and resubmit it as a fresh manuscript.?

  • 5   -   Why are manuscripts with >25% plagiarism rejected?

    It is our experience that if a submitted manuscript has >25% plagiarism it is very unlikely that the authors will revise the manuscript and submit the revised version. If the manuscript is kept in the journal publication system indefinitely, it creates an extra burden on the technical and human resources. However, authors are welcome to do the required revisions and submit the manuscript as a new submission.

    6   -  Calculation for the percentage of plagiarized text

    The percentage of plagiarism is calculated by Turnitin and also assessed manually. Please note that the plagiarized text may be scattered throughout the manuscript or it may be as a single paragraph or as a single block of text with multiple paragraphs. In some cases it may be difficult to calculate the exact percentage of plagiarized text.

    7   -   The possibility that plagiarism/duplicate publication may not be detected in a manuscript submitted for publication

    Sometimes it may not be possible to detect plagiarism/duplicate publication in a manuscript submitted for publication. Some situations are:

  • Plagiarism

  • It may happen that the manuscript is not freely accessible to article indexing services due to restrictions by programmers, journals or publishers; or it is available on the journal website but not yet indexed by article indexing services. In such cases when plagiarism check is done the content of the manuscript being checked cannot be compared to the original manuscript due to restrictions and plagiarism will not be detected.

  • Duplicate Publication

  • I. Same manuscript, with or without minor changes, is submitted to two or more journals at the same time and it is published in both the journals, II. A manuscript is submitted to a journal but it is withdrawn from the journal before publication and is submitted to another journal; however, it is still published in the first journal.

    In the above cases when pre-processing check is done by one journal, duplicate publication will not be detected, as the manuscript is still under process in the other journal and has not been published online. It is likely that one journal will publish the manuscript, unaware that it is also being published in the other journal.

    In all the above examples, after the manuscript is published, readers will see two published articles in two different journals with all or some content which is exactly the same.

    8   -  Handling of a reported case of plagiarism in any journal from any publisher

    If you come across a case of plagiarism in any journal from any publisher, please do inform the editorial office(s) of all the involved journals, giving them the journal names, title of manuscripts, name of authors, volume number, issue number, year of publication and any other information you may have. The editorial offices will handle the cases as per their policy.

    9   -  Plagiarism after publication

    If plagiarism is detected after publication, SAJMS will conduct an investigation. If plagiarism is found, the journal editorial office will contact the author's institute and funding agencies. The paper containing the plagiarism will be marked on each page of the PDF. Depending on the extent of the plagiarism, the paper may also be formally retracted.

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    Plagiarism Spectrum

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    COPE Plagiarism_Submittedr

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    COPE Plagiarism_Published